Type A and Type B residential units - who what where?

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    David Kaplan

    Jon,

    Yes these are in the Building Code in Chapter 11 (Accessibility) and Type A and Type B units, in a nutshell, are essentially units that are not fully accessible, but they're either "ADA friendly" or able to, in the future, become more accessible should the need ever arise.  We just did a multi-family condo building with about 12 units and I had to do several of them as Type B.  When we designed these, we had to do things like making sure certain rooms had 2'-10" minimum width doors, bathrooms had quote-unquote "some" clearances (but not the full-blown ones like in ADA), and bathroom fixtures didn't have to have grab bars, but they did have to have blocking in the walls for future grab bars.  So, it was more of a "if someone should ever need to add these things in the future, there's elements in place now to do so."

    The definitions of Type A and Type B I believe are in Chapter 2 of the building code, and if not, check out ANSI A117.1.  The Building Code tells you when you need to provide these types of units and how many (note: it also tells you when units to be Accessible, meaning full-compliance with ADA), and then once you've determined that you need to do this, ANSI A117.1 tells you how to design a Type A and a Type B Unit.  Check that out.

    Not every Residential Use Group building has to follow this.  Hotels for example do not.  But a lot of R-2 and R-3 buildings do.  It applies mostly to residential uses that are permanent in nature, such as apartments, condo buildings, etc.  This is all listed in the Building Code.

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    Jonathan Chertok

    thank you david!
    i want to say “thank you dude!“ but i am afraid to offend anyone on here!
    so 2’8” is a weird minimum no? are they going to try 2’6”? i mean is there anyone that mean? half joking of course.
    also, of course your answer is awesome. context is what is missing imho. anyway, is there any way to get a handle on knowing how you would be expected to logically regurgitate this information? i mean, presumably it would be done test that said the unit needs to be and you would have to pick from the “TypeA” or “Type” B column?
    or what exactly...?

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    Jonathan Chertok

    hi david,
    one more here on this “ The Building Code tells you when you need to provide these types of units and how many (note: it also tells you when units to be Accessible, meaning full-compliance with ADA)...”
    why or joe is IBC specifying the number of Type A or Type B units again?

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    Kevin Griendling

    Jonathan,

    Type B units are units that are required to comply with the Federal Fair Housing Act. It may be enough information on the exam to know that there ARE type A and B units defined, but it is highly unlikely that knowing the exact differences between the two would be necessary. The Federal Fair Housing Act only is triggered by projects that receive federal funding, therefore, represents a relatively miniscule fraction of the scenarios you should expect to encounter on the exam.

     

    Hope this helps,

     

    Kevin Griendling, AIA

    xq.intersectartsstudio.com

    www.pluralsight.com

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    Jonathan Chertok

    hi kevin. always grateful for the sharp minds here. so type A and B are some kind if national federal standard but not in IBC?
    and the extent to which i have to know anything about them for this exam was what again please...?

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    Kevin Griendling

    Jonathan,

    I would suggest just knowing that and A type unit is just a residential ADA unit, and a B type unit is one that is required for Federal Fair Housing Act. Imagine a question like this (which I am simultaneously adding to my xQ app's library as we speak):

    A client of your firm sends and RFP for a multi-family residential housing complex on the outskirts of the city's downtown area. The project is located in a underserved area and is financed using both private and public funding. The public funding for the project is split between state programs, and federal financing. What primary design challenge must be considered due to the type of funding used on the project?

    A.  The project will require commercial overlay for public programs at the street frontage.

    B.  The project will require Type A and Type B ADA Units.

    C.  The project will not be allowed any private commercial use.

    D.  The project must provide ADA retrofits in the adjacent public right-of-way, if retrofit is required.

    You should not need to know the minutia of the differences between A type and B type. They are REALLY similar, and the differences are so small and so niche that it would be unreasonable to expect someone minimally competent to perform architectural services should have them memorized. Even this question is a bit of a stretch, but a possible curveball kind of challenge.

     

    Also, this is not really a PDD subject. This is more of a Project Management or Programming & Analysis question.

     

    All the best,

     

    Kevin Griendling, AIA

    xq.intersectartsstudio.com

    www.pluralsight.com

     

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    David Kaplan

    Jon,

    I don't have the ability to copyclip from the code here, but Section 1107 in IBC clearly identifies when Type A and Type B units are required in buildings.  Take a look at the Code.  

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    Jonathan Chertok

    hi david. thanks very much for this. so Group I occupancy requires some kind of provisional handicap retrofit ability in the design of the units?
    any idea /why/ there would be this kind of quasi-federal handicap type requirement in the building code? this seems very weird and atypical to me.
    also, this is like the definition of a needle in a haystack as it relates to the study materials. is there some way to get a handle on what you should know or how you should know it?!

    International Building Code 1107.5

    Group I. Accessible units and Type B units shall be
    provided in Group I occupancies in accordance with Sections
    1107.5.1 through 1107.5.5.

    Group I-1. Accessible units and TypeBunits shall
    be provided in Group I-1 occupancies in accordance with
    Sections 1107.5.1.1 and 1107.5.1.2.

    Accessible units. At least 4 percent, but not
    less than one, of the dwelling units and sleeping units
    shall be Accessible units.

    Type B units. In structures with four or more
    dwelling or sleeping units intended to be occupied as a
    residence, every dwelling and sleeping unit intended to
    be occupied as a residence shall be a Type B unit.
    Exception: The number of Type B units is permitted
    to be reduced in accordance with Section 1107.7.

    Group I-2 nursing homes. Accessible units and
    Type B units shall be provided in nursing homes of Group
    I-2 occupancies in accordance with Sections 1107.5.2.1 and
    1107.5.2.2.

    Accessible units. At least 50 percent but not
    less than one of each type of the dwelling and sleeping
    units shall be Accessible units.

    Type B units. In structures with four or more
    dwelling or sleeping units intended to be occupied as a
    residence, every dwelling and sleeping unit intended to
    be occupied as a residence shall be a Type B unit.
    Exception: The number of Type B units is permitted
    to be reduced in accordance with Section 1107.7.

    Group I-2 hospitals. Accessible units and Type B
    units shall be provided in General-purpose hospitals, psychiatric
    facilities, detoxification facilities and residential
    care/assisted living facilities of Group I-2 occupancies in
    accordance with Sections 1107.5.3.1 and 1107.5.3.2.

    Accessible units. At least 10 percent, but not
    less than one, of the dwelling units and sleeping units
    shall be Accessible units.

    Type B units. In structures with four or more
    dwelling or sleeping units intended to be occupied as a
    residence, every dwelling and sleeping unit intended to
    be occupied as a residence shall be a Type B unit.
    Exception: The number of Type B units is permitted
    to be reduced in accordance with Section 1107.7.

    Group I-2 rehabilitation facilities. In hospitals
    and rehabilitation facilities of Group I-2 occupancies which
    specialize in treating conditions that affect mobility, or units
    within either which specialize in treating conditions that
    affect mobility, 100 percent of the dwelling units and sleeping
    units shall be Accessible units.

    Group I-3. Accessible units shall be provided in
    Group I-3 occupancies in accordance with with Sections
    1107.5.5.1 through 1107.5.5.3.

    Group I-3 sleeping units. In Group I-3 occupancies,
    at least 2 percent, but not less than one, of the
    dwelling units and sleeping units shall be Accessible
    units.

    Special holding cells and special housing
    cells or rooms. In addition to the Accessible units
    required by Section 1107.5.5.1, where special holding
    cells or special housing cells or rooms are provided, at
    least one serving each purpose shall be an Accessible
    unit. Cells or rooms subject to this requirement include,
    but are not limited to, those used for purposes of orientation,
    protective custody, administrative or disciplinary
    detention or segregation, detoxification and medical isolation.
    Exception: Cells or rooms specially designed without
    protrusions and that are used solely for purposes
    of suicide prevention shall not be required to include
    grab bars.

    Medical care facilities. Patient sleeping
    units or cells required to be Accessible units in medical
    care facilities shall be provided in addition to any medical
    isolation cells required to comply with Section
    1107.5.5.2.

    International Building Code 1107.5.1

    Group I-1. Accessible units and TypeBunits shall
    be provided in Group I-1 occupancies in accordance with
    Sections 1107.5.1.1 and 1107.5.1.2.

    Accessible units. At least 4 percent, but not
    less than one, of the dwelling units and sleeping units
    shall be Accessible units.

    Type B units. In structures with four or more
    dwelling or sleeping units intended to be occupied as a
    residence, every dwelling and sleeping unit intended to
    be occupied as a residence shall be a Type B unit.
    Exception: The number of Type B units is permitted
    to be reduced in accordance with Section 1107.7.

    International Building Code 1107.5.1.1

    Accessible units. At least 4 percent, but not
    less than one, of the dwelling units and sleeping units
    shall be Accessible units.”

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    Jonathan Chertok

    THANK YOU david and kevin...

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    Kevin Griendling

    Notably corrected/clarified, Thanks David. I should have read on instead of sticking with the definitions and a quick google search. David is absolutely correct. If you want to remain high level, the federal Fair Housing Act (relating to residential occupancies) applies to any new multifamily housing consisting of four or more dwelling units, so I would revise my sample question, like so:

     

    Good question, Jonathan! all of us are learning every day, that is why we "practice" architecture.

    I still do think knowing all of the minutia of the design differences between the two is too granular, and I would focus on code requirements for where they are required.

     

    Kevin Griendling, AIA

    xq.intersectartsstudio.com

    www.pluralsight.com

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    Jonathan Chertok

    hi kevin. good stuff here. and good people. are you on linked in?
    ALSO. maybe david can help me here too?
    i don’t get this. i mean i csn review the vide snd also the commentary on this chapter.
    but what is the thumbnail rationale here. or the cliff notes version again?
    IBC is requiring some kind of /federal/ handicap type accessibility (which are called Type A and Type B) for any project - or any multi-family project of some size - or any Group I projects (?!) - that was financed by FEDERAL FUNDING?
    why would ibc use have anything to do with federal funding?
    i guess they incorporated ADA into the APPENDIX awhile back so they have done this also with Type A and Type B /FEDERAL/ construction funding requirements?
    i don’t get the logic of why there is federal funding require i guess. seems uncategorically atypical for this to be in IBC.

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    David Kaplan

    Jon,

    No that is not correct.  With respect to the Building Code, federal funding has nothing to do with it.  That was only in reference to Fair Housing projects and when Type A and Type B can come into play for those jobs.  Let's keep that separate for a second and just focus on what IBC says.  If you have a building type that is one of the Use Groups identified in Section 1107, and you meet those criteria listed in the Code where they tell you "if these conditions apply then you have to have Type A or Type B" then you have to have them.  Period.  I don't care who's paying for it.  

    I can't really speak to the intent of the Code other than it's probably to provide a balance between condo developers not wanting to put in ADA compliant suites that in their eyes are unnecessary and will never sell and still trying to not forget ADA and people that really need them.  So, to me I kinda look at Type A and Type B units as a compromise: OK, you're not doing full-compliance, but you're making them "ADA-friendly."  

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    Jonathan Chertok

    thanks david. i guess i need to dig into the commentary at some point because this dems confusing. but also i have to reread here what we are expected to know. which is also confusing.
    so ADA is federal guidelines for and what to do vis-a-vis requirements for publicly accessible amenities like public bathrooms?
    and IBC does this for various Use Groups they specify and via the Type A and Type B designations?
    sorry for the 20 questions it is just time is tight for code research right now. but i’d still like to get the birds eye view if possible.

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    David Kaplan

    Jon,

    To address your last comment about time being tight for code research right now, and assuming that this is because you have a test date looming on the horizon, my best advice to you is this:

    As interesting as it may be to want to know this information, don't focus your efforts right now on why the codes are the way they are.  You're not going to be asked any of that, I promise you.  As the primary code person in our office, I too am very interested in learning about the reasons behind the building codes and how they came about, but reserve that type of learning and studying for another day when you're not trying to pass these tests.  I only offer this to help zero you in on getting this exam behind you, not trying to discourage dialogue with you on this forum at all.

    This being said, let me see if I can generally help here with respect to ADA and IBC and how they relate to one another for the purposes of this test.  For the most part, IBC tells you when you need to make something accessible.  As an example, there's a table in IBC for parking stalls that says "if you have X number of total stalls on your site, Y number of them must be accessible."  However the code stops there.  So now, you as the architect need to design an accessible parking stall.  How do you do that?  Go to ADA (or in most cases, ANSI A117.1, which is very, very, very close to being the same as ADA by the way).  So, IBC tells you when, ADA and ANSI A117.1 tell you how to do it.  Same thing with bathrooms - IBC tells you when a bathroom has to be accessible, but when it comes time to design it that way, ANSI provides you all the diagrams and dimensions you need to achieve that.

    Same holds true then for Type A and Type B units.  IBC identifies when you need to include them in your project, and you copyclipped the correct code sections above.  So if you were to get a question on the exam relating to this, it would likely be in the vein of "you have an R-2 Use Group building with 20 units in it.  The architect needs to determine the level of accessibility required for the building.  Which response below correctly identifies the units that need to be designed for accessibility?"  And then your multiple choices might be "4 units need to be Type B, 2 units need to be Type A" and something like that (btw ignore all my numbers, I'm making this up on the fly, not referencing the code.)  You would be given the code sections from 1107 and in reading them, you would have to determine this answer.  That's it - the purpose of that question would be NCARB testing you "do you know how to use and interpret this Code?"  Lots of the code questions on the exams are like this.  

    And yes, you could also get a question like, "the architect needs to design a Type B unit in a multistory condo building.  Which floor plan correctly shows the minimum required layout in the master bathroom per ANSI A117.1?"  You would be given the ANSI excerpts regarding bathroom design, you'd read them, and then have to pick the correct layout that meets those requirements.  When you get a question like this, be on the lookout for details, as those might throw you off.  

    Fair enough?

    Hope this helps some.

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    Jonathan Chertok (Edited )

    hi david,
    thanks as always. just help me again before i dive in on what i am doing here procedurally and as a logical, thinking thing again?
    i have a floor plan of some building that is of some stated OCCUPANCY presumably and some stated BUILDING HEIGHT and some stated TOTAL AREA or - well, i don’t know exactly. what factors into required Type A units and require type B units again?
    it is the USE?!
    so i gather this data and i would look at a chart? or a floor plan? or what is the next piece of reference data?
    then as a result i would be able to state the resulting number of Type A or Type B units that chapter 11 specifies as needed for some kind of construction or use or area or whatever?
    i mean i WILL reread your response closer and i will crack chapter 11 code commentary i just want to be able to get a kind of coherent understanding of this.

    “ So if you were to get a question on the exam relating to this, it would likely be in the vein of "you have an R-2 Use Group building with 20 units in it. The architect needs to determine the level of accessibility required for the building. Which response below correctly identifies the units that need to be designed for accessibility?" And then your multiple choices might be "4 units need to be Type B, 2 units need to be Type A" and something like that (btw ignore all my numbers, I'm making this up on the fly, not referencing the code.) You would be given the code sections from 1107 and in reading them, you would have to determine this answer.”

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    Jonathan Chertok

    david. on this one please. you mention bring able to identify Type A and Type B units and to “be on the lookout for details”.
    1. can you explain further what you mean by details.
    2. i don’t need to distinguish between A and B on a plan presumably?
    3. i’m just distinguishing between a partially handicap accessible unit and one that is not?
    THANKS

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